Horse racing has evolved over centuries from a primitive contest of speed or stamina between two horses into a vast public-entertainment business that can involve thousands of horses and complex electronic monitoring systems. But the basic concept has remained intact: The horse that crosses the finish line first wins.
The most important flat races, such as the Prix de l’Arc de Triomphe and the Melbourne Cup, are run over distances of ten to sixteen miles or more. These races are seen as tests of both speed and endurance, although it is generally conceded that a longer race favors stamina over speed. The majority of races, however, are not so long and rely more on speed than endurance.
For a horse to be eligible to run in a horse race it must have a pedigree that includes both the sire and dam (mother and father) of a purebred horse. Various breeds of horses compete in different types of horse races. Most flat races are run over dirt, but there are also turf and synthetic tracks. In the United States, a horse must be at least four years old to be eligible for most races.
In the early days of organized horse racing in America, match races between two horses over several four-mile heats were popular. After the Civil War, however, speed became a priority and the American Thoroughbred emerged as a leading contender in international competition.
The most famous race in Europe is the horse race held twice a year on July 2 and August 16 in Siena, Italy, known as the Palio di Siena. It is a horse race in which the horse and rider represent one of the city’s seventeen Contrade, or wards. The race is preceded by a magnificent pageant.
At the start of the race, a horse’s coat must be bright in the walking ring to ensure that it is well prepared for running. Observers will also look for the signs that a horse is tired, such as a drooping tail and a swaying head. The jockey, whose job is to spur the horse on, must be careful not to overdo it. A sudden surge can cause a horse to be thrown off balance and fall.
The horses were thirsty, and they had all been injected that morning with Lasix, a diuretic marked on the racing form with a boldface “L.” It prevents pulmonary bleeding, which results from hard running and can leave the bloody, bruised body of the winner looking unsightly. The drug’s secondary function is to make the horses unload epic amounts of urine, which helps to rehydrate them.